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два подхода к определению объема
Предложение в условиях совершенной конкуренции

Есть два подхода к определению объема,  максимизирующего прибыль:

  1. Сопоставление валовых величин – валового дохода с валовыми издержками.

  2. Сопоставления предельных величин – предельного дохода с предельными издержками.

На следующем рисунке рассматривается сопоставление валовых величин.


     При фиксированной рыночной цене товара валовый доход фирмы TR=P*Q изображен прямой линией, что характерно чисто конкурентному рынку. Валовые издержки фирмы подчиняются действию закона убывающей отдачи. На графике показаны две критические точки. За пределами интервала, обозначенного этими точками, производство убыточно. Внутри интервала – производство прибыльно. Максимальная величина прибыли будет в точке, где кривые TC  и TR  наиболее удалены друг от друга.

Если цена низка, то все уровни производства убыточны. Фирме следует производить товар, если валовый доход больше переменных издержек. В этом случае весь объем переменных издержек и часть постоянных будет оплачиваться из дохода, а не из кармана предпринимателя. Минимум убытков будет в точке, где кривые TR и TC менее всего удалены друг от друга. В случае дальнейшего уменьшения цен, фирме придется прекратить производство, как только TR будет равен VC. В этом случае постоянные издержки совсем не окупаются. Следовательно фирме лучше закрыться и не расходовать ресурсы.  

На следующем рисунке производится сопоставление предельных величин.


Чтобы обеспечить  максимизацию прибыли, наращивают уровень  производства, до тех пор пока производство новой единицы товара приносит  фирме дополнительную прибыль. Предельная прибыль от производства новой единицы  продукции  равна разности MR-MC.  Пока предельный доход больше предельных издержек, общая прибыль повышается и фирма может  наращивать  производство.  Как  только  предельные  издержки превысят предельный доход,  общая выручка снижается и фирме невыгодно наращивание производства.  Максимум  общей прибыли достигается при таком объеме продукции Q, при котором P=MC=MR..

Если уровень цен выше минимума средних валовых издержек ATC, нпр.,MR1, то у фирмы есть прибыль. Ее величина равна площади прямоугольника Z=AB*Q1. Если уровень цен выше равен MR2, т.е. находится в интервале minATC > MR2 > minAVC,  то терпит убытки. Их величина равна площади прямоугольника Z=BC*Q2. При  уровне цен меньше minAVC  следует закрыть предприятие.

Т.о., максимизация прибыли и минимизация убытков фирмой в краткосрочном периоде выполняется выбором такого объема производства, при котором  MR(P)=MC.


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